Most people with glaucoma are unaware of it. Without treatment it can lead to partial, but even to total sight loss.

It is an eye disease caused by an optic nerve necrotizing. The main cause is an increased intraocular pressure, but also an injury, malfunctioning regulation of intraocular fluid production, intraocular fluid drainage canals blockage, genetic factors, other diseases (for example, diabetes) and some medicaments (corticosteroids).

For an early detection of glaucoma prophylactic examinations are important. People over 65, people who have a family history of glaucoma and people who have had trauma to their eye or eyes are at risk to get the disease. 

What are the symptoms of glaucoma?

Glaucoma is mostly without symptoms, it does not hurt and does not cause problems. The problems appear immediately after the disease is developed – firstly, there is nearly imperceptible sight loss, later a peripheral vision disorder and at the end completely decreased visual acuity.

Unfortunately, glaucoma is not possible to treat completely because the optic nerve damage is irreversible.

Diabetic retinopathy

It is a damage of retina caused by diabetes. Retinopathy involves changes to blood vessels that nourish the retina which loses her function due to blood leakage. This complication appears, on average, after ten years of living with diabetes, an age, a sex and a blood pressure play an important role. If a person with diabetes is treated properly, he can slow the development of diabetic retinopathy for many years or prevent it.

Diabetic retinopathy symptoms

Diagnosed tiny blood vessels enlargement in a retina is the first symptom. Later on vessels start to leak blood into the retina and the retina swells. A pacient can notice blurry vision. The diabetes can lead to a damage of an optic nerve that causes double vision.

Treatment of diabetic retinopathy is based on a blood sugar regulation, decreasing high blood pressure and on a long-time treatment adjustment and changes to healthy living style of a patient with diabetes with the aim to compensate diabetes optimally. For the retina treatment the laser is often used. The method is called a photocoagulation.

Prevention is to get and respect medical advice for the life with diabetes that stabilize the sugar blood level and also visiting an oftalmologist regularly.

Cataract or natural process of getting eyes older

Cataract is caused by clouding of the eye’s lens that is normally transparent. The clouding causes a decreased lens transparency and obstructs light rays refraction onto retina. The clouding expandes, vision deteriorates and the person may even lose his sight. An extensive cataracts is visible.

Cataract develop especially in connection with ageing. It is a natural process of a human’s eye – eye lens ageing. Most frequently it appears after the age of 65, but it can appear as late as in 80s. Sources state that after the age of 75, more than 75% of population suffers from this disease.

The real cause of cataract is unknown. The cataract is accelerated by diabetes, inflammations and injuries of the eye, hereditary disposition, using medicine, smoking, using drugs and others. The cataract can affect one or both eyes.

How the cataract is treated

Cataract can not be treated with any medicaments or glasses. The only possible solution is an operation where the clouded eye lens is removed with the use of an ultrasound or the latest, with a laser and is replaced with an artificial lens.